Sophie Cardinal, Ph.D.

Sophie Cardinal's photograph

Technical Support: Teresa Martin

  • Systematics of bees, especially the family Apidae
  • Evolutionary relationships of bees inferred from molecular and morphological data
  • Evolution of parasitic and social behaviour in bees
  • Divergence time estimates
  • Phylogeny and revised classification of Apidae (Hymenoptera) using molecular and morphological data
  • Revision of Nomada (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in America north of Mexico
  • Dating the antiquity of bees (Hymenoptera)
  • Relationships among bee families based on transcriptome data
  • Phylogeny of Apidae based on reduced complexity genomes

I'm always looking for motivated students to join the lab. Please contact me for further information.

Graduate Students
Remy Reijven
Remy is a Master's student from the University of Amsterdam. He is working on a molecular phylogeny of Centridini (Hymenoptera: Apidae).
Undergraduate Students
Josie Siciliano
Josie is a fourth year undergraduate student at the University of Ottawa and she is presently working on extracting DNA and sequencing various gene fragments for the Nomada revision project.
Kelley Van Vaerenberghe
Kelley is a fourth year undergraduate student at the University of Ottawa and he is presently working on testing various DNA extraction methods to optimize protocols for extracting DNA from museum insect specimens.
Joseph Quisto
Joseph is a third year undergraduate student at the University of Ottawa and he is presently working on extracting DNA and sequencing various gene fragments from Andrena bees.

Click on linked title for abstract


Cardinal, S. and Danforth, B.N. (2013). "Bees diversified in the age of eudicots.", Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 280(1755), pp. 1-9, Article 20122686. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.2686

Danforth, B.N., Cardinal, S., Praz, C., Almeida, E.A.B., and Michez, D. (2013). "The Impact of Molecular Data on Our Understanding of Bee Phylogeny and Evolution.", Annual Review of Entomology, 58, pp. 57-78. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ento-120811-153633

Litman, J.R., Praz, C.J., Danforth, B.N., Griswold, T.L., and Cardinal, S. (2013). "Origins, evolution and diversification of cleptoparasitic lineages in long-tongued bees.", Evolution. doi: 10.1111/evo.12161


Debevec, A.H., Cardinal, S., and Danforth, B.N. (2012). "Identifying the sister group to the bees: a molecular phylogeny of Aculeata with an emphasis on the superfamily Apoidea.", Zoologica Scripta, 41(5), pp. 527-535. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00549.x

Whitfield, J.B., Fernández-Triana, J.L., Janzen, D.H., Hallwachs, W., Smith, A., and Cardinal, S. (2012). "Mariapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a new genus of Neotropical microgastrine parasitoid wasp discovered through biodiversity inventory.", ZooKeys, 208, pp. 61-80. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.208.3326


Cardinal, S. and Danforth, B.N. (2011). "The Antiquity and Evolutionary History of Social Behavior in Bees.", PLoS ONE, 6(6, Article No. e21086). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021086


Cardinal, S., and B.N. Danforth (2010) The antiquity and evolutionary history of social behavior in bees. PLoS ONE 6(6): e21086. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021086.

Cardinal, S., J. Straka, and B.N. Danforth (2010) Comprehensive phylogeny of apid bees reveals the evolutionary origins and antiquity of cleptoparasitism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(37): 16207-16211.

Soro, A., J. Field, C. Bridge, S. Cardinal, and R.J. Paxton (2010) Genetic differentiation across the social transition in a socially polymorphic sweat bee, Halictus rubicundus. Molecular Ecology 19: 3351-3363.


Cardinal, S., and L. Packer (2007) Phylogenetic analysis of the corbiculate Apinae based on morphology of the sting apparatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Cladistics 23: 99-118.


Darling, C., and Cardinal, S. (2005) The world species-groups of Leucospis (Hymenoptera: Leucospidae) – 30 years later. Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae 69: 49-64.


Cardinal, S., and C. Darling (2003) Interactive identification key to the world species groups of Leucospis (Hymenoptera: Leucospidae). Chalcid Forum 25: 10-11.

Sophie Cardinal
Canadian National Collection of Insects (CNC)/Collection nationale canadienne d'insectes (CNC)
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada/Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada
960 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario, CANADA K1A 0C6
Telephone/Téléphone: 613-759-1797
Facsimile/Télécopieur: 613-759-1701
E-mail: Sophie Cardinal  e-mail Dr. Cardinal

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