Definitions For Glossary Terms

M1 SETA
In Signiphoridae, seta projecting from the upper surface of the anterior margin of what is called the marginal vein in signiphorids, which, if present, is basal to seta M5. [drawing]
M2 SETA
In Signiphoridae, basal-most seta beyond seta M5, which projects from the upper surface of the anterior margin of what is called the marginal vein in signiphorids. [drawing]
M2B SETA
In Signiphoridae, seta projecting from the upper surface of the anterior margin of what is called the marginal vein in signiphorids, which, if present, is beyond seta M2 and basal to seta M6. [drawing]
M3 SETA
In Signiphoridae, seta projecting from the upper surface of the anterior margin of what is called the marginal vein in signiphorids, which is beyond seta M6 and basal to seta M4. [drawing]
M4 SETA
In Signiphoridae, apical-most seta projecting from the upper surface of the anterior margin of what is called the marginal vein in signiphorids. [drawing]
M5 SETA
In Signiphoridae, basal-most seta projecting from the upper surface of the posterior margin of what is called the marginal vein in signiphorids. [drawing]
M6 SETA
In Signiphoridae, if present, apical-most seta projecting from the upper surface of the posterior margin of what is called the marginal vein. [drawing]
MACROCHAETA
(pl., macrochaetae) In Mymaridae, long, stout setae that have sockets and project forward from the dorsal surface of the marginal vein; see also hypochaeta and microchaeta. [drawing]
MALAR CARINA/KEEL/RIDGE
A strong carina extending between the lower margin of the eye and the base of the mandible in a similar position as the malar sulcus. [photo]
MALAR DEPRESSION
A depression immediately above the base of each mandible on the side of the head; sometimes called the adoral depression or hollow. [drawing]
MALAR DISTANCE
See malar space
MALAR SPACE
Minimum distance between the lower margin of the eye and the margin of the mouth at the base of the mandible; sometimes called the malar distance. [drawing]
MALAR SULCUS
Groove or line extending between the lower margin of the eye and the margin of the mouth at the base of the mandible, which differentiates the gena from the lower face; sometimes called the genal sulcus. [drawing][photo]
MANDIBLE
Pair of strongly sclerotized, lateral mouthparts lying between the labrum and labiomaxillary complex, which are used for chewing; normally a mandible is differentiated apically into one or more teeth. [drawing]
MANDIBULAR APPENDAGE
Toothed or serrate structure attached to the ventral surface of the mandible of some members of Agaonidae.
MANDIBULAR FORMULA
Number of mandibular teeth on the left and right mandible respectively, written in the form of a ratio, for example, 3:2 or 3/2.
MANDIBULAR TEETH
Angular or denticle-like projections along the apical margin of a mandible.
MARGINAL FRINGE
See marginal setae
MARGINAL RIM OF SCUTELLUM
Extreme posterior margin of the scutellum if differentiated by a groove, line, or row of differentiated sculpture (see also frenum). [drawing]
MARGINAL SETAE
Fringe of setae that project from around the wing margin in the same plane as the wing membrane. [drawing]
MARGINAL VEIN
Portion of the forewing vein complex that is along the leading edge of the wing basal to the stigmal vein; usually measured from the point at which the submarginal vein touches the leading edge of the wing to the point at which the stigmal vein and postmarginal vein unite (sometimes there is a narrow membranous region anterior to the marginal vein and in some families, e.g. Signiphoridae, defined to include what is likely the parastigma of most other chalcids). [drawing][drawing]
MAXILLA
(pl., maxillae) Paired, ventral sclerite of the mouthparts that forms the lateral portion of the labiomaxillary complex. [drawing][photo][drawing]
MAXILLARY PALPUS
Finger-like appendage on each maxilla composed of up to five segments. [drawing][photo][drawing]
MEDIAL / MEDIAN
(adv., medially) At or toward the center or midline (middle) of the body or structure. [drawing]
MEDIAN (M) SETAL LINE
A longitudinal setal line near the middle of the wing (see also median fold). [drawing]
MEDIAN CARINA
Longitudinal, medial ridge on the propodeum. [drawing][photo][photo]
MEDIAN FOLD
A concave longitudinal fold that normally is in the posterior half of the forewing but which is anterior to the cubital fold; sometimes called the mediolongitudinal flexion line (see also median setal line).
MEDIAN MESOSCUTAL SULCUS
A longitudinal groove along the midline of the mesoscutum. [photo]
MEDIAN OCELLUS
See anterior ocellus
MEDIAN VEIN TRACK
See median (m) setal line
MEDIAN VENTRAL LAMINA/PROJECTION
See intervolsellar process
MEDIAN VENTRAL PROJECTION
See intervolsellar process
MEDIO-
Prefix meaning toward the midline of the body or structure, e.g. mediolongitudinal.
MEDIOLONGITUDINAL FLEXION LINE
See median fold
MESAL / MESAD
At or toward the longitudinal midline of the body.
MESEPIMERON
Posterodorsal portion of the mesopleuron, which is differentiated from the mesepisternum by the mesopleural suture. [drawing][photo]
MESEPISTERNUM
Anteroventral portion of the mesopleuron, which is differentiated from the mesepimeron by the mesopleural suture. [drawing]
MESO-
Prefix that designates structures (except for the wings) of the second segment of the thorax, the mesothorax.
MESOLCUS
See discrimen
MESONOTUM
Dorsal sclerite of the mesothorax, which is almost always divided into an anterior mesoscutum and posterior scutellar-axillar complex by the transscutal articulation. [drawing]
MESOPECTUS
Term sometimes used for the entire lateral and ventral portion of the mesothorax (see also pleurosternum ).
MESOPLEURAL SUTURE
Oblique line on the mesopleuron that extends from near the mesocoxa toward the base of the forewing, which divides the mesopleuron into an anteroventral mesepisternum and posterodorsal mesepimeron. [drawing][photo]
MESOPLEURON
Pleuron of the mesothorax, which is normally subdivided into an acropleuron or subalar area, a mesepisternum , and a mesepimeron. [drawing][photo]
MESOPLEURUM
See mesopleuron
MESOPRAESCUTUM
See mesoscutal midlobe
MESOSCUTAL LATERAL LOBE
Paired lateral regions of the mesoscutum that are differentiated from a median midlobe when notauli are visible; sometimes called the scapula. [drawing][photo]
MESOSCUTAL MIDLOBE
Median or middle region of the mesoscutum that is differentiated from paired lateral lobes when notauli are visible. [drawing][photo]
MESOSCUTUM
Region of the mesonotum anterior to the transscutal articulation and scutellar-axillar complex. [drawing]
MESOSOMA
Middle of the three main body regions of apocritan Hymenoptera, which looks like the insect thorax but is composed of the thorax plus the propodeum; sometimes called the alitrunk. [drawing]
MESOSTERNAL SHELF
Ventral surface of the mesothorax between the mesocoxae and an epicnemial carina, if there is one (see also epicnemium). [photo]
MESOSTERNUM
Synonymous with mesothoracic venter, that is, used for the ventral portion of the mesopleuroste rnum below the transepisternal line/sulcus, if such a line is visible. The ancestral mesosternum is hypothesized to be invaginated into the thorax and not externally visible in Hymenoptera, though a mesosternum has erroneously been ascribed to some Encyrtidae and Eupelmidae by some authors.
MESOTARSAL PEGS
Peg-like structures on the ventral surface of one or more of the mesotarsal segments. [photo]
MESOTHORACIC SPIRACLE
Paired spiracles on the thorax that are adjacent to each anterolateral margin of the mesoscutum, typically at or near the juncture formed between the mesoscutal margin, the pronotum, and the anterodorsal angle of the prepectus; rarely the mesothoracic spiracle is surrounded by pronotal cuticle when the prepectus is fused with the pronotum; sometimes called the prothoracic spiracle. [drawing][photo][photo]
MESOTHORACIC VENTER
Ventral surface of the mesothorax, which is often called the mesosternum. [photo][photo]
MESOTHORAX
The middle, normally largest segment of the thorax, which bears the second pair of legs and the first pair of wings of those chalcids with wings. [drawing]
MESOTIBIAL APICAL PEGS
Peg-like structures near the anterior (outer) apical margin of the mesotibia in some chalcids, which are in a similar location and analogous to the protibial comb of the front leg of most chalcids. [photo]
MESOTROCHANTINAL LOBE
Paramedial denticles or lobes that project from the posterior margin of the mesothoracic venter on which the base of the mesocoxa articulates; concealed beneath the coxal base in most chalcids but in most Eupelmidae externally visible as two distinct lobes or as a median plate that is cleft apically (see also trochantinal lobe). [photo]
MESOTROCHANTINAL PLATE
Posterior part of the mesothoracic venter that is reflexed dorsally under the bases of the mesocoxae and which normally is hidden. [photo]
META-
Prefix that designates structures (except for the wings) of the last segment of the thorax, the metathorax.
METANOTAL FLANGE
The thin, blade-like extensions of the dorsellum or postscutellum of the metanotum in Elasmidae.
METANOTUM
Dorsal sclerite of the metathorax, which is often differentiated into a median dorsellum and lateral, lateral panel of the metanotum. [drawing][drawing] [photo]
METAPLEURON
Pleuron of the metathorax, which usually is triangular or rectangular and unlike the mesopleuron is not normally subdivided. [drawing] [photo][photo]
METASCUTELLUM
See dorsellum
METASOMA
The posteriormost of the three main body regions of apocritan Hymenoptera, which looks like the insect abdomen but excludes the first 'true' abdominal segment, the propodeum, which is fused to the thorax; the metasoma includes the second 'true' abdominal segment, the petiole (see also gaster). [drawing][drawing]
METASOMAL SPIRACLE
The single pair of functional spiracles on the metasoma, which are present on the seventh metasomal or sixth gastral tergum (normally the second last tergum). [drawing]
METASTERNAL SHELF
In Torymidae, a widened anterior region of the metasternum that is visible externally as a more or less horizontal, ventral margin of the metapleuron above the base of the mesocoxa.
METASTERNUM
Sternum of the metathorax, which is mostly concealed under the bases of the metacoxae and metasoma. [photo][photo]
METATENTORIA
See posterior tentorial pits
METATHORACIC SPIRACLE
Paired spiracles of the metathorax, usually not visible in chalcids but when present lying between each mesopleuron and metapleuron, usually near the dorsal margin of the metapleuron. [drawing][photo]
METATHORAX
The last segment of the 'true' thorax, which bears the third pair of legs and usually the second pair of wings, and is fused posteriorly to the propodeum (see also mesosoma). [drawing]
MICROCHAETA
(pl., microchaetae) In Mymaridae, setae on the margin or surfaces of the marginal vein that do not have sockets; see also microtrichia, hypochaeta, and macrochaeta. [drawing]
MICROPILOSE AREA
Apical or ventral microsetose sensory region of the antennal clava. [photo]
MICROTRICHIA
(pl., microtrichiae) Short, setae-like spicules on the wing membrane that lack sockets; see also microchaeta. [drawing]
MIDLOBE OF MESOSCUTUM
See mesoscutal midlobe
MOUTH CAVITY
Opening in the head capsule in which the mouthparts are positioned, sometimes called the oral fossa.
MOUTH MARGIN
Margins of the mouth cavity, which consist of the clypeal margin and paraclypeal margin on the front of the head and the genal margin on the side of the head. [drawing]
MOUTHPARTS
Collective term for the gustatory organs of the head, including the labrum, paired mandibles, paired maxillae, and labium.
MUCRO
Spine-like process formed by a posteromedial extension of the hypopygium. [drawing]
MULTIPOROUS PLATE SENSILLA
See longitudinal sensillum