Definitions For Glossary Terms

PARA-
Prefix meaning near to, e.g. paramedian.
PARA-AXILLARY SUTURE
See scutoscutellar suture
PARA-MESOSCUTELLAR SUTURE
See axillular groove/carina
PARACLYPEAL MARGIN
Part of the mouth margin on the front of the head lateral to the clypeal margin. [drawing] [photo]
PARAGLOSSA
(pl., paraglossae) Outer pair of lobes at the apex of the prementum of the labium, which combined with the glossae form the 'fleshy' ligula.
PARAMEDIAL / PARAMEDIAN
(adv., paramedially) Close to the longitudinal midline of the body or structure; synonymous with submedial / submedian. [drawing]
PARAMERAL SETA
Long seta that often originates from the apex of the paramere of the male genitalia. [drawing][photo]
PARAMERE
Posterolaterally differentiated lobe of the phallobase external to the volsellae. [drawing][photo]
PARAPSIDAL LINE
Differentiated line or band of sculpture anteriorly on each mesoscutal lateral lobe; the parapsidal lines are external indications of the lines of attachment of the dorsoventral flight muscles in the pharate pupa; in much of the early chalcid literature the term parapsidal furrow referred to what is now accepted as the notaulus. [drawing]
PARAPSIDE
See mesoscutal lateral lobe
PARASCROBAL AREA
Region of the upper face between each scrobe and inner margin of the eye. [drawing][photo]
PARASCUTAL CARINA/FLANGE
The lateral, carinate to flange-like margin of the mesoscutal lateral lobe (sometimes used only for the posterolateral portion of the margin that is recurved toward the transscutal articulation adjacent to the tegula). [photo][photo]
PARASCUTELLAR SUTURE
See axillular groove/carina
PARASCUTELLUM
Term used by some authors for the axilla and by other authors for the axillula.
PARASPIRACULAR CARINA
Term used in the Eulophidae for a carinate inner margin of the paraspiracular sulcus (see also postspiracular sulcus and prespiracular carina). [drawing]
PARASPIRACULAR SULCUS
In Eulophidae, a longitudinal, diagonal or curved depression or furrow on the propodeum behind the spiracle, sometimes also called the spiracular sulcus (see also postspiracular sulcus). [drawing]
PARASTIGMA
Apical region of the submarginal vein that usually is differentiated because it is abruptly curved, thickened, or separated slightly from the marginal vein, and sometimes projects posteriorly into the disc of the forewing; called the premarginal vein in the Trichogrammatidae. [drawing]
PARATERGITE
In many Encyrtidae, a narrow sclerite in the membranous area posterior to the cercus between the outer plate of the ovipositor and the syntergum. [drawing]
PECTINATE ANTENNA
An antenna that is 'branched' because one or more segments of the funicle have a long projection or ramus; sometimes called a branched or ramose flagellum. [drawing]
PECTUS
Term sometimes used for the combined lateral and ventral portions of the mesothorax and metathorax, that is the ancestral pleuron and sternum.
PEDICEL
Second segment of the antenna, which articulates basally with the scape and apically with the flagellum; sometimes called the pedicellus. [drawing]
PERCURRENT
Complete, or continuous throughout the entire structure.
PETIOLAR FLANGE
Flange-like extension of first gastral sternum, which supports the petiole ventrally. [drawing] [photo]
PETIOLATE
Being stalked, i.e. having a narrow, stem-like base or attachment.
PETIOLATE METASOMA
A metasoma that is differentiated from the mesosoma by a distinct constriction because of a variously long, tube-like petiole (see also sessile metasoma). [drawing]
PETIOLE
The second 'true' abdominal segment of a chalcid, which connects the mesosoma and the gaster; the petiole is the first segment of the metasoma and is more or less tube-like when there is a distinct constriction between the mesosoma and metasoma, and band-like when the mesosoma and metasoma are broadly joined. [drawing][photo]
PHALLOBASE
Tube-like structure that surrounds the aedeagus and that posteriorly is usually differentiated into a pair of medial volsellae and lateral parameres. [drawing][photo]
PHALLOTREMA
(pl., phallotremata) The distal opening of the aedeagus through which sperm is released. [photo]
PHALLUS
See genital capsule
PHRAGMA
(pl., phragmata) An internal ridge or projection of the body wall to which muscles are attached.
PLACOID SENSILLA
See longitudinal sensillum
PLAQUE
See ventral plaque
PLEURON
(pl., pleura) Sclerite that forms the lateral surface of each of the prothorax, mesothorax and metathorax. [drawing]
PLEUROSTERNUM
(adv., pleurosternal) Term sometimes used for the combined lateral and ventral regions of a thoracic segment, particularly the mesothorax though the sternum of the mesothorax is hypothesized to be invaginated and the sternopleural region to be composed entirely of pleural elements (see also mesopectus).
PLEUROSTOMAL AREA
A smooth area on the side of the head above the base of the mandible.
PLICA
(pl., plicae) Sublateral ridge on the propodeum mesal to the spiracle (see also submedian carina of propodeum). [drawing][photo][photo]
PLICAL CARINA
See plica
PLICAL DEPRESSION
In female Eupelmidae, median or anteromedial depression of the propodeum that may or may not be overlain by a posteriorly protuberant scutellum. [photo]
PLICAL FURROW
In Eupelmidae, furrow on the propodeum that extends from the posterolateral margin of the propodeal foramen toward the anterior margin of the propodeum and which differentiates the median plical regions from the lateral callar regions; presence of a postspiracular sulcus as well as a plical furrow in some females indicates that the two are not homologous. [photo]
PLICAL REGION
In female Eupelmidae, median portion of the propodeum between the plical furrows or the entire region between the spiracles if there are no plical furrows and the plical region and callar regions are not differentiated. [photo]
POD
See posterior ocellar line
POL
See posterior ocellar line
POST-
Prefix meaning behind or following, e.g. postscutellum.
POSTALAR PLATE
See lateral panel of axilla
POSTCERCALE
Maximum distance between the metasomal cercus and posterior margin of the syntergum.
POSTERIOR
(adv., posteriorly) Toward or at the hind (rear, back) end of the body or structure. [drawing]
POSTERIOR ALAR PLATE
See lateral panel of axilla
POSTERIOR NOTAL WING PROCESS
Projection from the ventral margin of the lateral panel of the axilla, which along with the anterior notal wing process adjusts position of the axillary sclerites for proper movement of the forewing during flight. [photo][photo]
POSTERIOR OCELLAR LINE
Minimum distance between the two posterior ocelli, abbreviated as POL or POD. [drawing]
POSTERIOR OCELLUS
One of two paired ocelli that are lateral to and posterior to the unpaired anterior ocellus when three ocelli are present; sometimes called the lateral ocellus. [drawing]
POSTERIOR SCUTELLUM
In Mymaridae, a posterior portion of the scutellum that is differentiated by a transverse line. [photo]
POSTERIOR TENTORIAL PITS
Paired pits sometimes visible on the back of the head near the occipital foramen that are external indications of the posterior tentorial arms. [photo]
POSTERO-
Prefix meaning toward the rear end of a structure, e.g. posterolateral. [drawing]
POSTFRONTAL SUTURE
See vertexal sulcus
POSTGENA
(pl., postgenae) Posterolateral region of the posterior surface of the head below the occipital foramen. [drawing] [photo]
POSTGENAL BRIDGE
Term used for a posteromedian region of the head between the occipital foramen and mouth cavity if undifferentiated except for a median line between the foramen and mouth cavity; in some chalcids a postgenal bridge results from inflection of the postgenae over the gula, but in others it likely results from fusion of the gula with the postgenae (see also hypostomal bridge). [drawing][photo]
POSTGENAL SULCUS
Sulcus on the head that extends posteriorly from the malar sulcus below the eye to the occipital foramen (see also occipital suture). [photo]
POSTMARGINAL VEIN
Portion of the forewing vein complex that is along the leading edge of the wing beyond the stigmal vein; measured from the point at which the stigmal vein and postmarginal_vein unite, apically to where the vein appears to end. [drawing]
POSTOCCIPITAL CARINA
If present, the carina on the back of the head that partially or completely surrounds the occipital foramen. [drawing][photo]
POSTOCCIPUT
Narrow region on the back of the head between the occipital foramen and postoccipital carina, if there is one.
POSTORBITAL CARINA
A ridge on the gena that extends posteriorly from the malar sulcus below the eye (see also postgenal sulcus). [photo]
POSTPECTAL CARINA/FLANGE
A ventral, rim-like posterior margin of the mesothoracic venter anterior to the mesocoxae. [photo]
POSTSCUTAL FLANGE
See axillar carina
POSTSCUTELLUM
Synonym of dorsellum, but in Elasmidae sometimes used for the central region of the dorsellum that bears the thin, posterolaterally projecting metanotal flanges.
POSTSCUTUM
See axilla
POSTSPIRACULAR SCLERITE
See prepectus
POSTSPIRACULAR SULCUS
In some chalcids, a longitudinal, diagonal, or curved depression or furrow on the propodeum behind the spiracle (see also paraspiracular sulcus). [drawing]
PRAESCUTELLUM
See axilla
PRE-
Prefix meaning before or preceding, e.g. preapical.
PREAPICAL CARINA OF SCUTELLUM
See frenal line/sulcus/carina
PREAXILLA
The posterior, vertical portion of the mesoscutum below the parascutal carina/flange adjacent to the tegula; the preaxilla is extended posteroventrally into the anterior notal wing process. [photo]
PRECOXAL CARINA/SULCUS/SUTURE
These terms have been used by different authors for either the transepisternal line/sulcus or the transepisternal sulcus.
PREMARGINAL VEIN
In Trichogrammatidae, term used for the parastigma. [drawing]
PREMENTUM
Basal portion of the labium, which is connected on either side to the stipes of the maxilla, and which bears the ligula apicomedially and the paired labial palpi apicolaterally. [drawing][photo][drawing]
PREORBITAL CARINA
Ridge on the face that parallels the inner margin of the eye. [photo]
PREORBITAL SUTURE
In Mymaridae, vertical suture that is subparallel with the inner margin of the eye and that forms the inner margin of the preorbital trabecula and lateral margin of the face. [photo]
PREORBITAL TRABECULA
In Mymaridae, the more or less vertical, thickened, often darker band of cuticle adjacent to and subparallel with the inner margin of each eye, which dorsally terminates at the juncture of the transverse trabecula and supraorbital trabecula (see also preorbital suture). [photo]
PREPECTAL CARINA
Carina, when present, that differentiates the ventral margin of each vertical, lateral portion of the prepectus from the lateral margin of the horizontal, ventral prepectal shelf. [photo]
PREPECTAL SHELF
The ventral, horizontal portion of the prepectus that unites the two lateral, vertical portions of the prepectus, which lies between the posterior margin of the prosternum and the anterior margin of the mesothoracic venter. [photo]
PREPECTUS
Sclerite on the side of the thorax between the lateral panel of the pronotum and the mesopleuron; in most chalcids the prepectus looks like separate, more or less triangular sclerites on either side of the thorax, but usually it is at least narrowly continuous ventrally under the procoxae (see prepectal shelf); in some chalcids the prepectus is reduced and difficult to see and in a few it is fused to the pronotum; sometimes called the postspiracular sclerite. [drawing][photo][photo][photo]
PRESCUTUM
See mesoscutal midlobe
PRESPIRACULAR CARINA
Term used in the Torymidae for a carinate inner margin of the postspiracular sulcus of the propodeum (see also paraspiracular carina).
PRETARSUS
Composite structure consisting of the tarsal claws and arolium, which is attached to the apex of the last or apical tarsal segment; the pretarsus is not counted as a tarsal segment although can be mistaken for one when large.
PRO-
Prefix that designates structures of the first segment of the thorax, the prothorax.
PROGNATHOUS
Position of the head when the long axis is oriented horizontally and the mouthparts are directed anteriorly.
PRONOTAL CARINA
When present, a transverse ridge on the pronotum that differentiates a neck from the collar. [drawing][photo][photo]
PRONOTAL SULCUS
In Eucharitidae, term used for a median longitudinal groove on the side of the pronotum.
PRONOTUM
Dorsal sclerite of the prothorax, which overlaps the sides of the thorax so as to be upside-down U-like; the pronotum usually is more or less loosely articulated with the mesothorax (see also lateral panel of the pronotum). [drawing][drawing]
PROPLEURON
Pleuron of the prothorax, usually mostly concealed under the pronotum. [drawing][photo][photo][photo]
PROPODEAL DISC
Term sometimes used for the central region of the propodeum between the spiracles or plicae if present.
PROPODEAL FORAMEN
Posterior opening of the propodeum through which organs of the mesosoma and metasoma are connected. [drawing][photo]
PROPODEAL SPIRACLE
Paired, typically oval or kidney-shaped, openings on the propodeum, usually near the anterior margin laterally. [drawing] [photo]
PROPODEUM
The first 'true' abdominal segment, which in apocritan Hymenoptera is fused to the thorax as the posteriormost section of the mesosoma. [drawing]
PROSTERNUM
Sternum of the prothorax, which is usually more or less diamond-shaped and mostly concealed under the propleurae and procoxae. [photo][photo]
PROTHORACIC SPIRACLE
See mesothoracic spiracle
PROTHORAX
The anteriormost segment of the thorax, which bears the first pair of legs but no wings. [drawing]
PROTIBIAL APICAL PEGS
Peg-like structures near the dorsoapical margin of the protibia (see also ). [photo]
PROTIBIAL COMB
A row of setae along the anterior (outer), apical margin of the protibia in the area between the calcar and basitarsus (see also mesotibial apical pegs. [photo]
PROTIBIAL SPUR
Tibial spur of the front leg; in most chalcids the protibial spur is short and straight (inconspicuous and needle-like) when there are 3 or 4 tarsal segments, but relatively robust, curved, and apically cleft (bifid, bifurcate) when there are 5 tarsal segments; sometimes called the calcar.
PROXIMAL / PROXIMAD
See basal / base
PYGOSTYLUS
See cercus