Definitions For Glossary Terms

SCAPE
The first or basal-most segment of the antenna, which articulates with the head by the radicle. [drawing]
SCAPULA
See mesoscutal lateral lobe
SCAPULAR FLANGE
Region (often slender) of the mesoscutal lateral lobe that is differentiated between the axillae and lateral lobe when the axillae are advanced. [drawing][photo]
SCLERITE
Any plate of the body wall bounded by membrane or sutures.
SCROBAL CAVITY
See scrobal depression
SCROBAL CHANNEL
See scrobal depression
SCROBAL DEPRESSION
Depression on the upper face composed of the two scrobes, sometimes called the scrobal cavity or scrobal channel. [drawing][photo]
SCROBAL SULCUS
Inverted V- or Y-shaped grooves on the upper face of many eulophids in the same position as the scrobes, which unite dorsally and, if inverted Y-shaped, continue dorsally as a median sulcus toward the anterior ocellus (see also frontofacial sulcus). [photo]
SCROBE
Depression on the upper face immediately above each torulus for reception of the antennal scape, the pair of depressions are often united dorsomedially into a single scrobal depression. [drawing]
SCROBIS
See scrobe
SCUTAL SUTURE
See transscutal articulation
SCUTELLAR SUTURE
See scutoscutellar suture
SCUTELLAR-AXILLAR COMPLEX
Region of the mesonotum posterior the transscutal articulation; often simply referred to as the scutellum, but composed of the scutellum and axillae. [drawing]
SCUTELLUM
Posteromedian, usually more or less teardrop or shield-like region of the mesonotum posterior to the transscutal articulation between the axillae. [drawing]
SCUTOSCUTELLAR SUTURE
Groove or line that separates the axillae from the scutellum (see also transscutal articulation). [drawing][photo]
SECOND ABSCISSA OF RADIAL SECTOR (RS2) SETAL LINE
In Trichogrammatidae, a setal line that extends diagonally from the uncus toward the anteroapical margin of the wing; in literature on Chalcididae this setal line is designated as the RS1. [drawing]
SECOND AXILLARY SCLERITE
One of three axillary sclerites of the forewing; typically a more or less triangular sclerite that articulates ventrally with the dorsal margin of the mesopleuron, mesally with the first axillary sclerite, and dorsoapically with the base of the submarginal vein. [photo]
SECOND BRANCH OF CUBITAL VEIN (CU2) SETAL LINE
In Trichogrammatidae, used for a longitudinal setal line near the posterior margin of the wing that is termed the cubital setal line or cubital vein in other chalcids. [drawing]
SECOND GONAPOPHYSIS
See second valvula
SECOND GONOCOXA
See second valvifer
SECOND VALVIFER
Valvifer or gonocoxa of the ninth abdominal segment, which consists of a basal semicircular sheet and apically prolonged inner plate of the ovipositor, which is terminated by the ovipositor sheaths. [drawing]
SECOND VALVULA
Gonapophysis of the ninth abdominal segment, sometimes called the stylet sheath, which forms the dorsal part of the ovipositor stylets; in Chalcidoidea the second valvulae are separate basally for a short distance, where they are connected by the laminated bridge, but distally are fused; the fused portions consist of two asymmetric dorsolateral portions that overlap to a greater or lesser extent and that are connected by notal membrane; the second valvulae interlock ventrally with the cutting first valvulae through the olistheter and articulate basally with the inner surface of each semicircular sheet of the second valvifer. [drawing][drawing]
SECONDARY COMB
See protibial comb
SEMICIRCULAR SHEET
Basal, more or less subtriangular or semicircularly expanded portion of the second valvula, which is continued apically as the inner plate of the ovipositor and to which muscles are attached for movement of the ovipositor stylets. [drawing]
SENSILLA AMPULLACEA
See capitate peg sensillum
SENSILLA PLACODEA
See longitudinal sensillum
SENSORY RIDGE
See longitudinal sensillum
SERRATE
Having a saw-tooth like margin. [drawing]
SESSILE METASOMA
A metasoma that is broadly attached to the mesosoma, that is, without a distinct constriction between the two regions (see also petiolate metasoma). [photo]
SETA
Hair-like sensory structure that is articulated basally; sometimes called a trichoid sensillum (see also longitudinal sensillum). [photo]
SETAL LINE
General term for setae that are aligned into a distinct row on the forewing disc. [drawing]
SETAL TRACK
See setal line
SIDE LOBE OF MESOSCUTUM
See mesoscutal lateral lobe
SIMPLE EYE
See ocellus
SPATULATE
Spoon shaped (see also lanceolate and oval/ovate/ovo id).
SPECULUM
A bare region of the forewing immediately beyond the basal setal line behind the parastigma (see also linea calva). [drawing]
SPICULA
See terminal spine
SPIRACLE
External opening in the body wall for a tracheal air tube, which forms part of the respiratory system of an insect; in most chalcids at least three sets of spiracles are visible, the mesothoracic spiracle, propodeal spiracle, and metasomal spiracle, as well as sometimes a metathoracic spiracle. [drawing]
SPIRACULAR SULCUS OF PROPODEUM
See paraspiracular sulcus
STEMMATICUM
If encompassed by grooves, a median region on top of the head that bears the ocelli; sometimes called the ocellar area. [photo]
STERNAULAR AREA
Term sometimes used for an anteroventral region of the mesepisternum behind the procoxa, anterior to and below the femoral depression, if delineated by an oblique groove that likely is homologous with the transepisternal line/sulcus (see also epicnemium). [photo]
STERNAULUS
See transepisternal line/sulcus
STERNOPLEURAL SUTURE
Term sometimes used for a line or sulcus on the mesothorax that seems to differentiate a pleuron and sternum, thus the term has been used for both the transepisternal line/sulcus and for the ventral part of the acropleural sulcus in chalcids with a greatly enlarged subalar area (acropleuron).
STERNUM
Sclerite that forms part of the ventral surface of the thorax and abdomen, except for the mesothorax where the mesopleura are thought to meet at the midline or discrimen. [drawing]
STIGMA
More or less knob-like enlargement at the apex of the stigmal vein. [drawing]
STIGMAL VEIN
Portion of the forewing vein complex that projects into the wing membrane from the apex of the marginal vein; measured from the point at which the stigmal vein and postmarginal vein unite, apically to where the vein appears to end. [drawing]
STIPES
(pl., stipites) Normally the largest section of the maxilla, which bears the maxillary palpus, galea and lacinia, and which is greatly enlarged in some chalcids. [drawing] [photo][drawing]
STRIGIL
Modified first tarsal segment of the front leg, consisting of a ventrobasal emargination, the basitarsal notch, in which there is a row of modified setae, the basitarsal comb, which together with the calcar forms an antennal cleaning organ. [photo]
STYLET SHEATH
Term sometimes used for the composite structure of the fused second valvulae.
STYLETS
See ovipositor stylets
SUB-
Prefix meaning under, near to, or about equal to, e.g. sublateral. [drawing]
SUBALAR AREA
A small, often slightly convex dorsal region of the mesopleuron below the base of the forewing; sometimes called the acropleuron, particularly in families where it is enlarged to form most or all of the mesopleuron. [drawing][photo][photo]
SUBALAR PIT
A small 'hole' in the mesopleuron below the base of the forewing, which normally lies between and delimits the posterior margin of the subalar area from the anterodorsal margin of the mesepimeron; the subalar pit is external indication of a phragma. [photo]
SUBANTENNAL GROOVES/SULCI
Paired grooves or lines on the lower face between each torulus and mouth margin. [photo]
SUBCOSTAL SCALE
See humeral plate
SUBCUBITAL FOLD
A slightly concave fold in the forewing that is adjacent to the posterior margin of the wing behind the cubital fold, which often is indicated only by a line of setae (see subcubital setal line); sometimes called the subcubital vein if pigmented. [drawing]
SUBCUBITAL SETAL LINE
A longitudinal line of setae on the ventral surface of the wing adjacent to its posterior margin behind the dorsal cubital setal line (see also anal vein (A) setal line as well as subcubital fold). [drawing]
SUBCUBITAL VEIN
See subcubital fold
SUBEFFACED
See obsolescent
SUBGENITAL PLATE
See hypopygium
SUBLATERAL
(adv., sublaterally) Close to the lateral margin of the body or structure. [drawing]
SUBLATERAL GROOVE
In Eulophidae, paired longitudinal grooves very close to the sides of the scutellum that differentiate a lateral, usually more or less vertical scutellar region, the axillula, between the groove and the usually posteriorly sloping axilla (see also axillular groove/carina). [drawing][photo]
SUBMARGINAL VEIN
Basal-most portion of the forewing vein complex that occurs behind the costal cell; measured from the constriction that delimits the humeral plate to the point at which the vein touches the leading edge of the wing apically. [drawing]
SUBMEDIAL / SUBMEDIAN
(adv., submedially) Close to the longitudinal midline of the body or structure; synonymous with paramedial or paramedian. [drawing]
SUBMEDIAN AREA
Anteromedian region of the propodeum bounded laterally by the plicae and often posteriorly by the costula, and sometimes divided into paired regions by the median carina. [drawing] [photo]
SUBMEDIAN CARINA OF PROPODEUM
Longitudinal ridge on both sides of the propodeum near its midline (see also plicae). [photo]
SUBMEDIAN GROOVE
Paired longitudinal lines or grooves on the scutellum that are closer to the midline than to the sides (see also sublateral groove); sometimes called the submedian line. [drawing][photo]
SUBOCELLAR SULCUS
In male Eupelmidae, a vertical line of weakness or more distinct furrow between the anterior ocellus and apex of the interantennal area. [photo]
SUBOCULAR AREA
In Mymaridae, region of the lower face between the malar sulcus and preorbital suture. [photo]
SUBOCULAR SULCUS
See malar sulcus
SUBPLEURAL AREA
See mesosternal shelf
SULCUS
A linear groove on a sclerite that was derived secondarily for a functional reason; often used synonymously with suture because of uncertain homology.
SUPRACLYPEAL AREA
Median part of the lower face between the dorsal limit of the clypeus and the toruli. [drawing][photo]
SUPRACOXAL FLANGE
Posteriorly reflexed margin of the callus that projects over the base of the metacoxa. [drawing][photo]
SUPRAORBITAL SUTURE
In Mymaridae, suture on the top of the head that parallels the upper margin of each eye and that forms the outer margins of the supraorbital trabecula and vertex. [photo][photo]
SUPRAORBITAL TRABECULA
In Mymaridae, the thickened, often darker band of cuticle on the top of the head that is adjacent to and parallel with the upper margin of each eye, which anteriorly terminates at the juncture of the transverse trabecula and preorbital trabecula (see also supraorbital suture). [photo]
SUTURE
A linear groove on a sclerite that is external indication of the line of fusion of two formerly separate sclerites, but more often is used imprecisely as a synonym of sulcus.
SYNTERGUM
Term often used for the last metasomal tergum if this is a composite structure resulting from the fusion of the seventh and eighth metasomal terga; see also epipygium. [photo][drawing]